260,580,739 ( July 2017 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years                   : 25.02% (male 33,205,805/female 31,994,844)
15-24 years                 : 16.99% (male 22,537,842/female 21,738,210)
25-54 years                 : 42.4% (male 56,493,414/female 53,980,979)
55-64 years                 : 8.58% (male 10,192,430/female 12,177,931)
65 years and over      : 7.01% (male 7,954,795/female 10,304,489) (2017 est.)

Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio          : 49.2
youth dependency ratio        : 41.6
elderly dependency ratio      : 7.6
potential support ratio          : 13.2 (2015 est.)

Median age
total: 30.2 years
male: 29.6 years
female: 30.8 years (2017 est.)

Population growth rate
0.86% (2017 est.)

Birth rate
16.2 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death rate
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Net migration rate
-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)

urban population: 55.2% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major cities – population
JAKARTA (capital) 10.323 million; Surabaya 2.853 million; Bandung 2.544 million; Medan 2.204 million; Semarang 1.63 million; Makassar 1.489 million (2015)

Sex ratio
at birth                       : 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years                   : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years                 : 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years                 : 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years                 : 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over      : 0.77 male(s)/female
total population         : 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth
22.8 years
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)

Infant mortality rate
Total               : 22.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male                : 26.6 deaths/1,000 live births
Female            : 18.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
total population         : 73 years
male                            : 70.4 years
female                         : 75.7 years (2017 est.)

Total fertility rate
2.11 children born/woman (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
0.4% (2016 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
620,000 (2016 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths
38,000 (2016 est.)

Major infectious diseases
degree of risk                         : very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases             : dengue fever and malaria (2016)

Noun               : Indonesian(s) 
adjective         : Indonesian

Ethnic groups
Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)

Muslim 87.2%, Protestant 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)
note: more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia

Definition                   : age 15 and over can read and write
total population         : 95.4%
male                            : 97.2%
female                         : 93.6% (2016 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total   : 13 years 
male    : 13 years 
female : 13 years (2014)

Education expenditures
3.3% of GDP (2014)

Maternal mortality rate
126 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight
19.9% (2013)

Health expenditures
2.8% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density
0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density
0.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate
6.9% (2016)

According to a 2017 count, Indonesia is home to 260,580,739 people, making it the world's fourth most populous nation after China, India and United States. The work force (15-64 yrs of age) is 70 percent of the total population.

The implementation of a comprehensive family planning program over the last three decades has resulted in controlled population growth. The growth rate has increased from over 1.5 percent in 2003 to 1.1 percent in 2017.

A Diverse Nation
In its ethnic groups, languages, culture, and religion, Indonesia is a very diverse nation. This great diversity is reflected in the country's national motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika which means "Unity in Diversity."

Ethnic Groups
Some 300 ethnic groups call Indonesia home, but most (45 percent) of Indonesians are Javanese. In addition, 14 percent are Sundanese, 7.5 percent Madurese, 7.5 percent coastal Malays, and 26 percent are of other ethnic groups.

There are more than 700 languages and dialects spoken in the archipelago. They normally belong to the different ethnic groups of the population. Some of the distinctly different local languages are: Acehnese, Batak, Sundanese, Javanese, Sasak, Tetum of Timor, Dayak, Minahasa, Toraja, Buginese, Halmahera, Ambonese, Ceramese, and several Irianese languages. To make the picture even more colorful, these languages are also spoken in different dialects.

Bahasa Indonesia is the national language. It is similar to Malay and written in Roman script based on European orthography. English is the most prevalent foreign language. Also, some Dutch is still spoken and understood in the bigger cities and French increasing in its popularity at the better hotels and restaurants.

Indonesia's active history has encouraged the growth of many unique cultures. On Java, the Javanese of Central and East Java are known for having several layers of formality in their language. In Javanese, to speak to a boss and then to a child is like speaking two different languages. The Toraja of Sulawesi are famous for their elaborate funeral ceremonies. Often several days long, these ceremonies bring the whole village together in a feast, a procession, and a hillside burial. And the Minangkabau of Sumatra still maintain a matrilineal society. Everything from houses to animals is inherited from mother to daughter.

Today, the country maintains this cultural richness, even as it expands into new areas. The traditional music of the gamelan and angklung coexists with new dangdut and rock and roll. The ancient art of wayang kulit, or shadow puppetry, complements the modern Indonesian film industry. And, while the themes and story from historic epics like the Ramayana persist, newer literature like that of the author Pramoedya Ananta Toer has become an irrevocable part of Indonesian culture.

Six world religions are formally recognized in Indonesia: Islam, Catholicism, Protestantism, Confucianism, Hinduism and Buddhism. Nevertheless, other faiths can be found, especially in isolated societies. These religions, called traditional faiths, are also accepted. According to recent counts, approximately 85 percent of the population is Muslim, 11 percent is Christian (Protestants and Catholics), and 4 percent is Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian, or traditional.